Di bawah ini adalah hasil notulensi dari diskusi publik pada Konferensi Creative Commons Asia Pasifik 2012 dan Peluncuran Creative Commons Indonesia yang dilaksanakan pada 11 November 2012 di Hotel Grand Sahid Jaya, Jakarta. Sebagian besar sesi pada acara ini menggunakan Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pengantar, sehingga hasil notulensi dituliskan dalam Bahasa Inggris.
A. Open Access to Publicly Funded Information, Data, & Research
- Prof. Dr. Jeong-wook Seo, Seoul National University
- Giorgos Cheliotis, National University of Singapore
- Name of Moderator: SooHyun Pae
Summary of the presentation
- There are different aspects of open access which are key components to open access
- We’re talking about value, sometimes we confuse it with price & value. Price can be expensive, but it’s not really valuable.
- Kathleen Azali said that open access is really important in Indonesia. This conference is very important
- We talk about knowledge expansion. However we’re troubled with that, some valuable, some expensive, etc. The expansion of knowledge is very rapid during the past 10 years.
- We still have problems in knowledge divide, one is accessibility, the other is production. It’s hard to get access in US for example. So it’s production divide vs accessibility divide. We need to facilitate production information at the site of issue, so we can get information immediately after the issue happens, rather than a few years later.
- There’s an increase of US papers in the last 15 years. China’s increase is even faster than US, which is a good thing. Our (Asia) region has increased information relatively faster than western countries, which is a good thing
- The knowledge expansion results in journal crisis
- Based on the 3 issues, one of the solutions is open access. Increased of library cost and production divide. Many other issues are also related to economic information. Open access contains many point of views
- For example is a Korean journal, it’s an open access, but not fully. Following common licenses are not enough. In our website, you have to register to view the journal. We need to make legal clearance to make my will of allowance.
- Another example is the MIT website, a journal is posted on the web, but if you want to read it, you have to pay to the library. So there is also some negotiations between publishers and authors upon where the work is registered to, which affect the distribution allowance of the works.
- You need to create several index in several search portals so you can find the journals you need, in local and global database together
- Abstract database is not enough, because most of the time we need to get the full text article
- We have Open Access Korea and it covers many fields, such as medical, etc. Universities can deposit their articles here
- Korea currently has 1,438 journals, the majority is humanity genre. We have 309 open access journals and the majority is medical.
- It’s very important for editors to participate in open access. There has been a recent conference for it attended by editors from several countries in medical field
- Let’s talk about copyright assignment form. Authors can’t distribute their own works while the publishers can do everything.
- There’s also an agreement of academic work, for example I’m talking in this room and there are people taking videos. The videographer has the right to distribute videos of me talking. So in this agreement, we arrange that people can distribute my talking or etc
- Between authors and publishers, the author still has most of the rights, especially the intellectual property. It’s not true that publishers have all the right. Common licenses make it clearer what kind of distribution is allowed or not
- It’s important to talk about how to share the data
- More and more data available online, and social media whether we like it or not. That raises a lot of questions, such as the quality of data, how it’s being used, etc
- When we get to a point that we have so much data on a certain topic, we start to get insights on the topic. That’s how big, ‘big’ is.
- We increasingly rely on third parties to get (organize & collect) data (expensive), it is impossible for a single person to download all the data by himself. So we rely to online data and it raises some worrisome issues. That’s why people become apprehensive to put their data online
- As we get flooded with more and more data, there’s actually a trade off with size. What happens is when many people have many data, the data is actually a bit shallow. On the other hand, there are researches who use different methods, and usually this kind of research gives you more insights.
- When a data is so big, it’s harder to know if the data is correct or not
- What we want is a data containing many number of cases and rich data. But mostly we get we know a lot about a few things or we know a little about a lot of things.
- Additional issues with web-sourced data
- Copyright/access, ToS, privacy, technical concerns
- Commercial interest
- Lack of means, reliance on third parties
- Reliability and validity
- Familiarity, lack of trained staff
- Data representation/virtualization
- We have a research on the role of social media, for example on the case of social movement. There is this theory called networked public, means on the internet we talk to different people in different space, and in this different space, the people can act different too. But it’s possible that these people know each other.
- How good was the data?
- Unexpected random variation in number of results returned: every time you ask you get different answer
- Difficult to define scope of pages relevant to subject of study
- Facebook does not return all posts or comments on page
- Sometimes you get an error message
- How do we know if the data is correct?
- How can we be sure that we interpret it correctly?
- How can we make sure that conclusions we reach and decisions we make based on the data will be correct?
- Was the data collected in a reliable manner?
- Are there errors?
- Was the data manipulated?
- How can I tell?
- Is this data capturing what I want to measure?
- Is it usufeul?
- Making good use of open data requires
- Willingness to make the data open: Make oneself open to criticism, what you share you will get back in return
- Technical skills and quality assurance
- Metadata (information about the data)
- Democratization of data analytic skills and tools
- Cultivating a spirit of openness and dialogue
B. Translating the Licenses into Bahasa Indonesia
Name of Panelist: Ari Juliano Gema (Creative Commons Indonesia)
Open Forum (Q&A)
- Prinsip komersialisasi. dari sudut pandang media. informasi bersifat bebas, nbagaimana penadapatnya dari sudut pandang media?
- foto: foto berbeda dgn informasi lain, kalau tulisan dengan mudah di quote. kalau foto ada effort untuk membuatnya, dia merasa berhak dapat benefit kalau seandainya foto itu di komersilkan.
- Freedom of Panorama
- freedom of panorama: kebebasan untuk mengakses karya yang bernuansa bangunan atau bersifat arsitektur. --> apakah foto berlatar arsitektur boleh diperjualbelikan?
- uu hak cipta tidak menyebutkan hal tersebut, namun ada hak eklsusif. dengan demikian kalau mengkomersilkan foto berlatar arsitektur harus seizin dengan pencipta karya arsitekturnya.
- di indo hal ini masih belum jelas. kembali ke prinsip awal bahwa tiap individu punya hak ekslusif untuk memakai foto tersebut. wikimedia common menyebutkan foto yg berlatar arsitektur harus seizin dari pembuatnya.
- undang2 menyebutkan bahwa bangunan yang tidak diketahui penciptanya maka dinyatakan milik negara, kalau ingin mengkomersilkan arsitektur tersebut haru izin ke negara. masalahnya siapa negaranya? tidak ada instansi yang jelas atau memiiki hak untuk menyatakan boleh atau tidak. sampai sekarang belum terbentuk instansi yang jelas untuk memberikan wewenang pemakaian karya-karaya tak bertuan. oleh karena itu selalu jadi masalah seandainya ada karya indonesia yang tak bertuan di komersilkan di luar negeri.
- saya dapat gambar dari user untuk digunakan sebagai media komersil, tetapi gambar tersebut dilindungi oleh salah satu lisence, tapi gambar tersebut akan dipakai hanya sebatas sebagai souvenir, kalau kasus seperti ini bagaimana solusinya. pertanyaan kedua sebatas apa sih komersil itu?
- solusi: sebagai org legal tetap harus berhati-hati memakai karya orang karena hal tersebut sudah dikatakan sebagai komersialisasi. harus ada surat resmi dari perusahaan yang terkait dengan lisensi gambar tersebut, apabila tidak ada jawaban, sampaikan pada perusahaan terkait 'apabila dalam 14 hari tidak ada jawaban maka gambar itu saya pakai', tetapi harus tetap dicantumkan lisensi nya. katakan kepada perusahaan tersebut kalau kita sudah melakukan upaya yang maksimal tapi tidak ada jawaban.
- kalau untuk di radio ada promo program yg menggunakan musik yang tidak dapat dilihat secara visual sumbernya, bagaimana hukumnya? kalau sumber youtube bagaimana? bagaimana dengan soundcloud yang bebas dipakai, apakah boleh diputar di radio?
- radio sudah bekerjasama dengan KCI, jadi masalah tersebut sudah dibayarkan entah di awal tahun atau di akhir tahun. youtube bukan pembuat video, dia hanya memiliki hak siar video. kalau au di komersilkan harus dengan embed player, kalau tidak dikatakan melanggar lisensi youtube dan hak cipta si pembuat video. kalau tidak, cantumkan nama uploader nya dan juga link nya.tergantung penciptanya apakah dia membutuhkan benefit kalau lagunya diputarkan? kalau radionya online harus disebutkan dengan jelas link dan sumbernya.
- bagaimana dengan foto pahlawan di uang?
- seharusnya bank indonesia sudah mengclear kan masalah hak cipta foto pahlawan di uang kertas.
- bagaimana dengan foto candid kalau di komersilkan?
- apakah foto tersebut merugikan orang yang menjadi objek tersebut? kalau tidak merugikan tidak apa-apa.
- foto public element dimodifikasi, kalau di publikasi gimana?
- prinsipnya apakah orang tersebut niat di foto? kalau iya harus izin. kalau candid atau mengalami perubahan, kembali ke apakah foto tersebut merugikan orang yang bersangkutan
- dengan di luncurkannya creative commons, bagaimana prosedur penuntutan pelanggaran hukum nya?
- semua kembali ke uu hak cipta, cukup datang ke polisi apabila menemukan atau menjadi korban pelanggaran hak cipta. creative common hanya sebatas status karya, apa yg boleh dan tidak boleh dilakukan oleh orang, tetapi segala sesuatunya akan dikembalikan ke undang-undang dan pengadilan.
- istilah-istilah di web agak sedikit membingungkan, karena penyerapan dari bahasa inggris ke indonesia sulit untuk memahami
- masalah bahasa tidak ada masalah, karena di dalam kamus bahasa indonesia bahasa tersebut baik dan benar serta tepat untuk menjelaskan arti dari bahasa inggris, masalahnya istilah-sitilah tersebut masih belum disosialisasikan, jadi masih sulit atau kebingungan ketika berhadapan dengan istilah-istilah tersebut. Mungkin solusinya akan dibuatkan glossary mengenai istilah-istilah tersebut
- apakah CC satu-satunya organisasi?
- CC itu organisasi terbuka, CC sendiri dikhususkan karya-karya digital yang non software (seni, sastra, dan seni budaya). CC sudah direkomenadasikan oleh UNESCO karena dianggap paling mudah untuk dipahami.
- di kampus ada seni musik dan seni tari, di setiap semester ada pentas seni yang di aransemen, dan pentas tersebut ingin di publikasikan ke media, bagaimana lisensi nya?
- kalau publikasi video dan di you tube, masalah hukum di youtube sudah jelas, kalau memang mau pakai creative commons juga bisa.
- Masih banyak PR mengenai undang-undang hak cipta, terutama di Indonesia, hukumnya masih belum jelas, institusi yang berwenang pun tidak ada, hal-hal yang dibahas masih hal-hal yang umum, belum ada pembatasan-pembatasan yang pasti, seperti halnya di Amerika pada contoh kasus fotocopy buku pelajaran, ada lembaga yang mengatur kalau fotocopy buku hanya boleh 5 lembar, kalau lebih harus bayar royalti, di Indonesia belum bisa berfikir sejauh itu.
C. CC License in Education
- Hong Son Dang (CC Vietnam)
- Liu Ping (CC China Mainland)
- Matt McGregor (New Zealand)
- Name of Moderator: Jane Hornibrook
Summary of the presentation
Access is not enough – freedom to reuse the information in a context is also crucial.
For resources to be truly open, creative commons can be applied to the resources themselves.
UNESCO urges governments to open resources to support educational movements.
1. HONG SON DANG: Educational Programs and CC
- A proper approach
- e.g. Vietnam has a labour-based economy. Relatively low level of education leads to low income. Inflation is a problem. Tradition includes not needing to say “thank you” when being helped, although gratitute is felt. However, thing are changing. Vietnam is in transition. To bring the CC culture is not easy – a wise approach is needed. A wise approach for Vietnam: building a “thanks saying” culture, making it as natural as possible.
- Major concerns
- Target age.
- Ownership versus freedom / openness of educational institutions where CC license is applied. The target for CC is private schools, since they fund themselves and more open change.
- Scale expanding steps.
- What we can do
- For kids and teenagers (age 16 and below): encourage and teach kids to create artworks; promote excellent works via contests, displays, exhibitions, and auctions; teach them to respect, protect, and share their creative works.
- For teenagers (age 14-19): encourage them to legally remix works.
- For people over 16: Wiki project, remix and share projects, cooperate and help promote.
- For schools: co-branding relationship; develop practical extracurricular activities targeting very young people as they are very easily affected.
2. LIU PING: CC China Mainland with Open Educational Resources
- There are no full time staffs for CC in China. Most of China’s OER works depend on the volunteering program. The emphasis of the program is online platform, including social networks, newsletters, collaborations with various institutions and communities. The development has been going for 5-6 years.
- Examples of projects: to promote the CC concept, which is to remix, reuse, and share.
CC OER Promotional Program: forums, salons, online platform (preference), research report.
Current progress: with China’s Ministry of Education – to move CC forward, the government needs to take the lead, working towards the Open Course programs in Universities in China Mainland using CC license.
- International OER Work: Online forum through Sina Micro Blog (the “Chinese Twitter”); Educational Youth Gathering in Beijing and Shanghai; Chinese version of WSIS of UNESCO (online platform, managed by part-time volunteers); Open Course upsurge in China Mainland, both from overseas and domestic (one domestic program, Chaoxing, focuses in local universities in China).
3. MATT MCGREGOR: CC in New Zealand
- Vietnam adapts a rather bottom-up approach (starting from targeted groups of people), while China adapts a rather top-down approach (starting from the government and institutions).
- CC has both legal and cultural implications.
- School needed to adopt a CC policy, to legalise the practice of sharing. The few schools that have adopted the policies are very enthusiastic. One effect would be that the teachers become more collaborative. The default situation was that teachers are sceptical and anxious about the policy. Apparently, they were not aware that they did not own their teaching materials.
- CC is a legal solution to a legal problem. However, it must be noted that CC is both legal and cultural, culture being the whole way of life. It obviously affects the world of copywrite, but the effects are more profound than a mere legal tool, in a way that it affects the way people relate to their own cultures. CC’s point is full participation in culture.
- Initiatives: Mix & Mash 2012; Wikieducator’s Open Content Licensing for Educators Workshop.
Open Forum (Q&A)
- For CC Vietnam
- There is a word for saying “thank you”. I heard that often when I went to Vietnam, while you said that it is not part of the culture.
- The culture for Vietnamese people: “thank you” is not a common practice among family members and friends. It is more common to say “thank you” in English; people generally find the Vietnamese word for “thank you” rather strange.
- For CC China Mainland
- The open courses, people can get it for free through open courses? How about the position of schools?
- The Online Courses do not disencourage school education. The situation in China is that not everyone can go to school, however more and more areas have internet access. Online open courses do not mean that institutional education is not needed; open courses act more as a supplement.
- For All
- The law. There is an international law on intellectual property. In some countries, these are translated into national law. Sometimes, these become contradictory to copywrite laws.
- Vietnam: Vietnam faces this problem. But when CC licenses were adopted and launched 2 years ago, the Vietnamese had to hire a very high-ranking lawfirm to do so. This were needed to integrate CC into the national law. Currently, it is doing rather well and there has been no problem with the government. However, a look out is still needed to anticipate hidden problems.
- Clarification: CC is not in contrary to copywrite – it is supposed to be placed on top of copywrite laws.
- CC China Mainland: China does have IPR laws, the root of which are to encourage people to communicate. In a sense, it is the same as CC license. They do not conflict with each other.
Addition: Copywrite laws do not only cover prohibition to use one’s work. It also covers the allowance to share works – it is intended to work that way.
- For All
- Are scanned documents for blind people allowed?
- CC New Zealand: There are some interest in New Zealand to translate books for the blind, but no specific answer yet.
- CC China MAinland: Demand is definite, but no clear permission. This should be part of China’s OER.
- Addition: In WIPO, there is a very strong push for access for the blinds. Some countries have very limited exceptions. At the moment, they are trying to make a treaty.
D. CC for Beginners
- Ivan Lanin (Creative Commons Indonesia)
- Dennis dan CJ (Komunitas Web Series Indonesia)
Summary of the presentation
- Lisensi CC adalah lisensi hak cipta yang menjembatani kepentingan pencipta dan kebebasan pengguna terhadap ciptaan/karya
- Hak cipta adalah hak eksklusif untuk mengumumkan atau memperbanyak suatu ciptaan yang timbul otomatis tanpa mengurangi pembatasan
- Hak cipta terdiri dari hak moral (hak yang menyatakan bahwa suatu karya adalah ciptaan pencipta itu sendiri, contohnya adalah tulisan di blog, hak moralnya ada di penulisnya) dan hak ekonomi (berkaittan dengan unsur “memperbanyak” di dalam pengertian hak cipta).
- Pengertian “otomatis” dalam hak cipta, adalah ketika suatu karya diciptakan, hak cipta sudah lahir, tanpa harus didaftarkan. Namun, permasalahan mengapa harus didaftarkan adalah untuk kepentingan pembuktian.
- CC bukan membentuk Undang-undang baru, tapi hanya memberikan sebuah sarana eksplisit bagi hak cipta untuk membantu pembuktian.
Mengapa harus dilindungi?
- Pencipta: mempertahankan hak moral dan ekonomi terhadap ciptaan sambil mendorong penyebaran dan penggunaan ciptaan.
- Pengguna: mengetahui secara persis apa yang dapat dilakukan terhadap suatu ciptaan.
- Umum: meningkatkan penghargaan terhadap hak cipta dan mendorong penciptaan baru. Karya di Indonesia, hak cipta belum terlalu diperhatikan. (Contoh: pengambilan gambar dari internet secara bebas, tanpa mencantumkan nama penciptanya)
3 komponen penting CC
- Syarat: bagian dimana kita menentukan hak mana yang kita lepas, atribusi, non komersial (harus meminta izin), tanpa turunan (hanya karya asli yang digunakan dan tidak diturunkan ke karya lain) atau berbagi serupa.
- Lisensi, yang disediakan oleh CC sendiri, yakni BY; BY-SA; BY-NC; BY-ND ; BY-NC-SA; dan BY-BC-ND. Lisensi-lisensi ini dilambangkan oleh CC dengan penggunaan logo-logo, yang ditujukan agar mudah dipahami oleh masyarakat luas.
- Format, yakni ringkas (deed) untuk kaum awam, lengkap (legal) untuk pihak konsultan hukum, dan digital (digital) untuk metadata yang dipahami mesin pencari, seperti di dalam advanced search Google .
Dimana CC dapat digunakan?
- Media yang dapat menggunakan lisensi CC (tulisan, audio/musik, foto/gambar, video)
- Bidang yang dapat menggunakan lisensi CC (kebudayaan pendidikan, pengetahuan seperti akses terhadap jurnal-jurnal penelitian, pemerintahan(contohnya adalah di pemerintahan Australia, dimana semua produk pemerintahannya telah berlisensi CC)
Contoh pihak-pihak yang telah menggunakan CC
- Wikipedia, Al-Jazeera, Deviantart, Bottlesmoker, Indonesian Netlabel Union, Beberapa video di YouTube, PloS (sumber jurnal), MIT Opencourseware, White House, Pemerintah Australia
Komunitas Webseries Indonesia
- Medium online video yang tayang perdana di internet secara berseri atau rutin, karya-karya yang ada disini adalah sepenuhnya karya asli Indonesia, media semacam ini dimulai sekitar tahun 2007-2008, namun komunitas ini sendiri mulai aktif di awal 2012.
- Lahirnya komunitas ini adalah atas kecintaan para pendiri komunitas ini dengan film dan TV. Karya-karya disini meliputi berbagai macam karya, baik karya video fiksi, non-fiksi, musik, dan lain-lain.
- Di Indonesia, hype atas video online ini tinggi, namun permasalahan yang timbul disini adalah komunitas indie yang merasa media ini sangat efektif, namun mereka merasa karyanya tidak terlindungi, khususnya atas pembajakan karya. Karena itulah komunitas ini merasa perlu lisensi CC digunakan di web mereka, agar perlindungan atas karya mereka lebih pasti.
Open Forum (Q&A)
- Bagaimana penggunaan CC pada foto dalam blog? Apakah butuh setiap foto diwatermark dengan logo CC?
- Dapat diberikan watermark, tapi hal itu tidak perlu, karena sejatinya apabila di dalam blog itu telah dilindungi dengan lisensi CC, maka perlindungan terhadap seluruh blog itu telah terjamin oleh CC.
- Bagaimana dengan perlindungan atas CC karya fisik seperti buku/CD?
- Dimasukkan logo CC di karya fisik tersebut.
- Bagaimana dengan perlindungan atas CC karya video?
- Biasanya dimasukkan logo CC ke credits.
- Bagaimana perlindungan lisensi CC atas lagu?
- Memang, dalam karya audio agak sulit untuk dilekatkan langsung lisensi CC nya dalam medianya, jadi yang dapat dilakukan adalah mencantumkan lisensi CC itu di bungkus CDnya, atau dicantumkan lisensinya di web dimana lagu itu dishare. Perlu diingat lagi bahwa CC ini ada untuk perlindungan awal. Perlindungan CC ini sendiri juga dibutuhkan oleh pencipta dan pengguna, untuk menyatakan bahwa mereka “satu pihak” dalam hal ini, yakni mendukung penegakan hak cipta.
E. Open Govenment
- Prayoga Wiradisuria (President’s Delivery Unit/UKP4, Head Director of Open Government Indonesia)
- Dianne Jung (Director of Creative Commons Korea)
- Prof. Anne Fitzgerald (Creative Commons Australia)
- Name of Moderator: Idaman Andarmosoko
Summary of the presentation
1. Prayoga Wiradisuria
- Indonesia is rich with natural resources and thus we experience the curse from it
- Recent decentralization policy has given ways for local governments to issue and manage mining licenses, one of the side effect is licensing chaos
- Take example in forestry, there is a difference of forestry data between Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Forestry, and this has caused many problems, such as corruption
- This issue happens because the ministries are not being transparent to each other. They keep their own data. The monetary damage reaches a total of 2,067 trillion IDR
- One of the things that UKP4 doing to resolve this issue is by releasing a map of Indonesia for the public to scrutinize and verify
- We are currently pushing a one map policy
- We already have a law on public information accessibility (UU 14/2008), which is a phenomenal shift
- Access to information is now also considered a human right. So the previous law has given the government a huge mandate and we are struggling to implement this. Open Government Indonesia is one of the things we attempt to do
- Pillars of Open Government Indonesia: transparency, participation, innovation
- OGI is a newly started movement
- It is a reform within the government
- It’s business not as usual
- It involves the public in general
- It’s an idea whose time has come
- OG Initial
- Innovation and breakthrough
- Expansion and deepening of public participation
- Strengthening the foundation
- Triple track strategy for 2012
- Accelerating & strengthening existing programs: Capacity building, paradigm shifting, institutional strengthening
- One service, one map, one government
- We held an OGI competition where 62 institutions are participating. These institutions are competing for a change. They have improved their service during this competition. We’re going to hold the same event again next year on a bigger scale
- Indonesia is a part of Open Government Partnership with 58 other countries
- We are now entering the third wave
- 1998: democracy
- 2004: regional autonomy
- 2011: open government
2. Dianne Jung
- Open government in Korea
- By the year 2010 we didn’t have any mobiles that were really useful, but after that, even high school students use smart phones
- For example, there was an information on bus schedules, but the data was supposed to be hidden and the government banned them from accessing the data, but then the citizens complained and now the data is accessible again
- Open government is good, but how are we going to make it happen?
- 2 essential aspects to open government: government and citizens. They must coexist, cooperate, and help each other
- E-gov korea: mostly digitalized, inter-connected, easy to use electronic window for civil petition. Korea has a very good infrastructure
- At national level, there’s Public Info Support Center (established 2011), data.go.kr (established 2012), and there are also future plans which are expand data pool, maintain online community for developers, law revision to more open. It will provide a firm ground for open government and immunity for officials practicing open. The problem right now is some of the government worry about copyright infringement, that’s why we are pursuing this law
- Local level, data.seoul.go.kr for example
- There’s a reaction from the private sector regarding open government, so codenamu is established, an open community to facilitate this reaction. Codenamu had an event where developers and designers brainstormed upon what data would be useful for the citizens
- One of the examples from the hack-a-thon event: shows safe clinics that use less antibitotic. Accessible through the web
- The other project is seoul city government financial operation monitor. The initial site was not attractive, so the hack-a-thon team made a cuter interface
- Share: share your ideas with others, it will benefit everyone
- Cooperate: government and citizens must cooperate
- Global: data is global. Follow global standard and use CCL
- The government has come up with a Korea Government Common License and I think it’s a waste of money because it’s almost the same with CCL
3. Anne Fitzgerald
- Creative commons and government in Australia
- Government produces many materials that is actually copyright protected
- There is an importance regarding information flows, this is an important part of innovation. One of the issues on information flows is license logjams
- It’s not true that public area doesn’t have any rights. That’s why creative common is a good thing. We can actually use copyright to structure openness
- Creative common has baseline permissions and core conditions
- Adoption of open content licensing (creative commons) as the default position for distribution of government copyrights
- The government was getting frustrated for not being able to distribute the data that they had, and they looked for the solution through creative commons
- Government websites crashed once because they got thousands of hits and google offered them to display their data through google earth
- A lot of Australian governments have already used CC BY
Open Forum (Q&A)
- EGI: Saya terperangah pada presentasi dari Korea, saya sadar OGI masih sangat jauh. Pertanyaan saya untuk Australia dan Korea, seberapa lama proses menerapkan creative commons di badan pemerintah dan sesulit apa untuk menembuskannya?
- Dianne: There was difficulty. First of all there’s an emotional gap between the government and the citizens so it’s not easy to convince each side to cooperate with each other. One of our achievement this year is the codenamu, because the government knows that we are reacting to open government. There’s still emotional gap, but we’re getting better.
- Anne: It’s not necessarily all that difficult. If you look at any countries, there’s a lot of international initiatives that the importance of openness is being recognized. Among the different bodies, there’s been a lot of talk about this. It’s really a matter of how we do it. There’s a lot of support for publishing this data. It’s really a matter of where you can move and where there’s a support for that. In our country it’s really the agencies that have a lot of support and want to make their data available.
- DINA: I’d like to ask Dianne. Is there any case or event where the information gathered by citizens initiatives are used and distributed by the government? Because in my organization we have similar initiatives related to creative economic programs coordinating with the government
- Dianne: There would be cases certainly. In that case it’ll be a little bit different from open government, because government opens their data to the public. So I do think that the government uses data from the public as well because they have been asking research data from universities and non-profit sectors etc. For example, if non-profit organizations have crucial data for society, and they refuse to open it to the public, the government will need to work on that, so that people will be more aware of the importance of openness.
- YOSSY SUPARYO: OGI posisinya ada di mana? Saya melihat kerja anda sangat berat. Tantangan apa yang sebetulnya anda hadapi dalam mendorong OGI sehingga bekerja sangat lambat sekali?
- Prayoga: The challenges in implementing OGI, the initiatives reside in five institutions, the central player is UKP4. Then there are other ministries. On the outskirts there would be some NGOs. We’ve just started, and yes we started slow, but we’re trying to enact this in 2013. However this is already a much faster effort compared to if this is conducted in business as usual manner. Some ministries used to try to do this, but there was no result in 2 years. The challenges are huge. UKP4 is a 30-staff unit and we’re dealing with a lot of issues, and OGI is one of the issues we’re trying to pursue very hard. We’re trying to convince the public to trust us, an emotional gap, maybe because there has been a lack of transparency. One of the challenges is to get support from the people. We’ve been helped by universities, they give us interns, building the portals, running the social media. We need more support, we don’t have a dedicated unit for this. It’s actually a 2-men show. This is a movement, what makes it fast or slow is us.
F. CC for Creatives
- Abdul Muid (CC Malaysia)
- Liu Ping (CC China Mainland)
- Jennifer (CC Korea)
- Wok the Rock (CC Indonesia
- Name of Moderator: Bonni Rambatan
Summary of the presentation
1. ABDUL MUID
- CC is special because it offers an interesting platform for people to use materials.
- When you use CC license for music, you would be able to dance to the music to express yourself without fear of infringing law. Numerous tracks nowadays are released using CC license.
LIU PING: Arts Promotional Program
- In the information society, artists benefit from sharing materials. The traditional copywriting law limits this. CC helps promote better interaction and communication, legally.
- China’s arts promotional program: A contest using different kinds of CC licenses. The mission is to spread the idea of “share, reuse, and remix” legally in a creative context. CC license encourages this. Also, to promote the concept in China. The international concept is being adopted in China. There are also offline exhibitions. Additionally, there is an online platform to collect works.
- After the first photographic competition, there are ones (exhibitions) relating to music and arts. Some works are compiled into books. An e-version is in development.
- China’s CC work does not rely on full-time staff as they have none – it all relies on volunteers working part-time.
- China employs different ways to convey the CC concept, depending on the works.
- Photography is important because photographers use their cameras to capture history, and people’s lives. Because of the significance of the works of photography, CC license becomes important to share such works.
- Other creative works in China are also starting to use the CC license. Some internet communities, which are platforms for sharing works, now use the CC license.
- A festival was held for people to enjoy works with CC license. Works include animation. Mr. Hong, an artist, encourages people to donate, and stated that he would release his works under the CC license if so.
- There are also works on music and photography.
- CC Korea contacted a number of libraries, to give access of works to the local communities.
- CC Korea also develops a website collecting works under CC license, in Korean and English, containing music videos, etc.
- It is important to also demostrate how to use contents under the CC license.
WOK THE ROCK
- In 1999-2004, he owned a record label, releasing music in the genre of punk. He felt bankrupt, and realised a tendency of people buying merchandises rather than music products. The label was deactivated afterwards, and in 2007 another label was established. However, he felt that releasing music products (e.g. CDs and cassettes) would not work in his favour, realising that internet was becoming part of the community, making people preferring to download music rather than buying physical albums. This led to the idea of distributing music via the internet.
- The next question is how musicians would obtain revenue if music is distributed free via the internet. The methods developed then was that the music is distributed via the internet in order to promote tha band. Revenue would then be obtained by people attending concerts and buying merchandise. At the end, sales is not detrimental, and the focus becomes on sharing the music, not selling them. Data are stored in trustworthy file hosting services for safekeeping. Internet Archive (archive.org), a site storing digitalised data, is used. When uploading files to the site, there are options for licensing – CC being included as an option. From there came the realisation that the distribution of all works depend on the call of the creators themselves – artists have control over their works.
- The use of CC license encourages sharing, and remixing works, legally, between artists.
- Future projects include working with online radio stations, and a festival of free music (free, meaning free to be shared and used).
Open Forum (Q&A)
- For China: How to let people know that a product is under CC license?
- For CC China Mainland, there are no numbers indicating works under CC licenses. Until now, there is still no platform to find out works under CC license. In the future, in a few years, it is hoped that China can work with companies to establish a system to register CC licenses.
- For China: Is there a possibility for collaboration?
- There is an online media platform and social media accounts. All activities held can be categorised into online and offline. Updates can be accessed from online platforms. It is not difficult to acquire news about CC China. There are also newsletters containing information about updates in CC HQ and CC China.
- For Indonesia: The prospect of distributing music using the CC license?
- There are ways to compensate lack of income from music sales, for example selling merchandise (e.g. t-shirts, etc.) by taking active participation in the promotion of their own music. It is also helpful to be smart of the trends among music buyers, for example, CDs and cassettes can be treated as merchandise nowadays.
G. CC in Education
- Name of Panelist: Prof. Richardus Eko Indrajit
- Name of Moderator: Anggara
Summary of Presentation
Bahan presentasi pernah di presentasikan di Cambride University, 2012.
- How to promote CC in HEI? Dari sudut pandang psikologi ada 4 pendekatan: Rational Approach, Emotional Approach, Physical Approach, Relational Approach.
- Masalah yang ada di Indonesia --> dari data statistik di dapatkan:
- di indonesia penyebaran universitas masih belum merata, di pulau yang paling kaya sumber daya alam nya justru paling sedikit jumlah universitasnya.
- jumlah lulusan universitas hanya banyak di Jakarta dan Jogjakarta
- jumlah Ph.D di tiap universitas di indonesi paling banyak hanya 5 orang
- 90% universitas akreditasinya C atau di bahkan tidak terakreditasi
- SOLUTION PROPOSED
- tingkatkan akses untuk pendidikan yang berkuaitas
- optimalisasikan sumberdaya yang berhubungan dengan pendidikan
- 5Cs as Main Principles
- Competition, Coordination, Comprehensive, Colaboration, Complliance
- APA YANG HARUS DI SHARE? Based on CC -> Open Education Initiatives
- content, proffesor, library, EBooks, CourseWace, Facilities, Credit Transfer, Learning, Journals, Conference, Creadit Earning, Research
- Open Education Architecture
- budaya untuk saing share content masih belum terbentuk bagi orang2 indonesia, ibarat jalan tol yang tidak ada mobilnya.
- lebih dari 75 persen profesor di indonesia telah memiliki akses internet, angka tersebut lebih rendah di banding mahasiswa yang dapat mengakses internet
- akreditasi A berarti universitas tersebut mempunyai kewajiban untuk membantu universitas lainnya, jadi seharusnya akreditasi A hanya diberikan apabila universitas tersebut membantu universitas lainnya.
- Starting from yourself
- apabila kita membuat sebuah paper, mulai di share di blog atau sebagainya.
- Continue with your community
- setelah kita men share tulisan kita pribadi, mulai ajak komunitas di sekitar kita untuk mulai men share hasil karya mereka sehingga bisa di akses secara gratis melalui internet.
Question and Answer
- Saran: sebaiknya jika seorang Ph.D akan lulus diharuskan untuk men-share tulisannya dan itu diwajibkan dan dapat memengaruhi penilaian.
- Q: adakah material kontrol untuk permasalahan sharing education
- A: kita sebenarnya punya hasrat yang besar untuk men-share, seperti foto, gosip dll, tapi kenapa jarang sekali orang mau men sharing ilmu pengetahuan?
kalau seandainya indonesia jadi nomor satu dalam men share segala hal seperti di twitter, facebook, etc, siapakah yang akan mendapat keuntungan? jawabannya adalah intelejen di seluruh dunia, karena kita telah men share segala sesuatu secara cuma-cuma jadi mereka tidak perlu men spy kita.
- Q: di universitas saya ada 4 wifi tapi tidak ada yang tahu passwordnya, jadi buat apa ada tu wifi, dan dari situasi ini bagaimana kita mau mengakses internet?
- A: mungkin mereka takut jebol nanti jadi lemot, kenapa gak dari hotspot itu di blok aja hal-hal yang kurang berguna seperti, facebook, twitter, youtube, dsb.
- Saran: akses internet di indonesia banyak yang dibatasi, karena pemerintah takut orang-orang mengakses konten pornografi, padahal berdasarkan data statistik orang indonesia kebanyakan tidak mengakses pornografi.
- Tanggapan: oleh karena itu perlu adanya bimbingan dari orang-tua untuk anak-anak ketika mengakses internet, sehingga anak-anak bisa mengakses internet untuk hal yang berguna.
H. CC School of Open
- Name of Speaker: Jessica Coates
Summary of the presentation
- The basic idea for the school of open is for people to share and teach stuffs about copyright and CC to other people by uploading courses online on the platform website. The school of open is coordinated by CC and the Peer 2 Peer University Volunteers, where individual creators and organizational representatives can design courses for peer learning in study groups or for facilitation by a subject expert. They are using a platform website called P2PU (Peer to Peer University), where they use it for sharing courses about CC licenses and things related to it. Basically anyone is able to write a course and share it to anyone that is logged on to the website. The website use this feature called “badge” that you will gain after you write an article/course. The goal for this is universal access to and participation in research, education and culture is made possible by openness.
- For example, they have courses on “Copyright for Teachers”, “Get CC Savvy” and other topics related to CC and copyrights, where they put concise informations in one article about introduction of the topic, questions, and the summary of the topic.
Open Forum (Q&A)
- Can people write their own courses about CC?
- Yes, it is open for public. Since it is the essence of the ‘peer to peer’.
- Is it for anybody? Or just for students and teachers?
- It is basically for anybody who wants to learn about CC.
- Is it a one course or combination of courses?
- They can be both, but now the system is like a stream of courses, so you can learn part of courses separately
- Since the Wikipedia is joining this project, what wil happen to WikiUniversity? Since it is basically the same thing as P2PU?
- They are now having talks with wikipedia, but there is no conclusion about it yet, and they are focusing on different things.
- Is there a kind of curation for P2PU?
- There must be some kind of curation, but Im not sure
- How do you deal with other languages?
- P2PU can translate the articles into some other languages.
I. CC for Creatives
- Ari Juliano Gema (CC Indonesia)
- Kat Walsh (CC HQ)
- Jay Yoon (CC South Korea)
- Name of Moderator: Jessica Coates
Summary of the presentation
- Why is an open system needed?
- The internet is used nowadays to share materials. The more open we are, the more we get from the open system. The open system is needed to keep the language and culture adapt to globalisation. In the modern world, the ability adapt is important, and in the realm of cultural diversity, an open system becomes particularly crucial.
- The Indonesian people love to share any information, especially through social media. This is the default situation for the Indonesian people. This is something that needs to be improved into something good. That is the reason behind the tagline "sharing to empower." Sharing must be for the better. In relation to the CC license, the awareness towards copywrite still has a long way. CC needs to be introduced after the introduction of copywrite laws in order to be easier to understand. CC license supports the sharing of materials legally. With internet, there is full access for education and research, and this relates to "sharing to empower."
- What can CC do?
- HQ: The local team plays a crucial role to keep the HQ informed. The people themselves must also reach out, let themselves be known. Therefore, local issues can be addressed. If CC is to be recognised, this is very important.
- According to a Chinese representative, CC is actually quite close to the traditional way of how culture should be treated. It is not about locking things up - it is about sharing things. Therefore, the CC concept can be very successful, as it should be easier to be taught to people.
- Do you think that in Asia Pacific, CC should be a legal mechanism, or a cultural one?
- Indonesia: It is more easy to understand legally. This is why copywrite must be taught first as the basic principle. Only then people can have a better understanding on the CC concept. Secondly, CC is a cultural mechanism to propose to the legal mechanism. The CC can be used to educate people, as the icons are very easy to understand. So CC is not only about sharing, but also about legal copywrite.
- South Korea: Strict limitation is not a good way to educate young people. What should be important is the understanding of how to share works properly, then how to find the content. The next step is to encourage people to make good content using the CC license. Therefore, the focus is not strict prohibition but proper sharing of works. The CC can be a cultural tool for young people, and a legal tool to make them understand the concept easily.
- HQ: It is very important to get the legal part correct, because it matters. However, as a cultural tool, it is very powerful and can reach more people. The legal tool is supporting, and is important to get right, but it is not the entire piece of the puzzle. So the legal tool is very important, but the cultural tool is more powerful.
- Language and cultural translation is very important. Do people think that translation works between languages is the most important thing related to CC, or are there any other issues?
- Indonesia: An issue is finding new words to translate works into Indonesia. An example would be "unduh" ("download"). Most Indonesians are not familiar with the translation, and are more familiar with the original term in English. Therefore, socialisation is very important.
- South Korea: Generally, it is easy to collaborate between regions. But the Asian region is unique due to its diversity in language, culture, religion, etc. Language is a big problem; it is not easy. But now there are many volunteers who translate into local languages, and there are tools to provide a platform for translating. Language is a barrier, but it can be solved.
- Why be involved?
- HQ: Small decisions can evolve into a big effect. It is encouraged to do what you can, because you never know what it can evolve into in the future.
- Indonesia: In a practical view, CC has a global network power with a large number of affiliations, meaning there is a chance to promote your works to a large number of people.
- South Korea: Diversity means that we can give and take many things. CC can be a bridge among ourselves. "We are open, we are innovators."